While reading, writing, speaking, and listening are important language components, research in applied linguistics indicates that integrated modalities represent how language is used in practice. Effective and natural language use often requires people to simultaneously employ multiple skills — including in academic settings.
In order to create subscores that are useful for all stakeholders they needed to satisfy three criteria. They must:
- Reflect the internal structure of the test.
- Be reliable.
- Have added value.
Learn more about the research in this blog post.